Cum să construiești un blog React și Gatsby în aproximativ 10 minute

Declinare de responsabilitate: Aceasta a fost scrisă pentru Gatsby Versiunea 1, versiunea 2 tocmai a fost lansată și a făcut unele modificări. Voi lucra la un alt tutorial pentru asta.

Gatsby este un generator de site static rapid și rapid, bazat pe ReactJS.

Un generator de site static (SSG) este un compromis între un site static HTML codificat și un CMS complet (Content Management System), cum ar fi Wordpress.

Un SSG poate fi utilizat pentru a genera pagini HTML pentru site-uri web bazate pe conținut (cum ar fi blogurile). Tot ce necesită sunt date pentru conținutul paginii și șablonul care trebuie completat cu conținut.

Această postare va fi împărțită în cinci secțiuni:

  1. Noțiuni de bază.
  2. Crearea componentelor de aspect.
  3. Crearea postărilor de blog.
  4. Generarea de pagini noi din datele postărilor pe blog.
  5. Creați o listă a fișierelor de reducere a site-ului nostru în pagina de destinație.

Vom face o scufundare profundă în Gatsby și câteva dintre caracteristicile sale, creând un blog static imaginar numit CodeStack. Mașina este prezentată mai jos. Sa mergem! ✌️

1. Noțiuni de bază

Condiții prealabile

Mai întâi, asigurați-vă că aveți instalat Node.js pe sistemul dvs. Dacă nu, accesați nodejs.org și instalați o versiune recentă pentru sistemul dvs. de operare.

De asemenea, acest articol presupune că înțelegeți ReactJS.

Instalați CLI

Gatsby are un instrument de linie de comandă care oferă comenzi utile precum:

  • gatsby new: pentru schela unui nou proiect Gatsby.
  • gatsby develop: pentru lansarea unui server de dezvoltare web activat pentru reîncărcare la cald.
  • gatsby build: pentru construirea unei versiuni gata de producție a proiectului.

Pentru a instala, tastați următoarele pe terminal și apăsați Enter:

npm install --global gatsby-cli

Permiteți crearea unui folder de proiect codestack-blogși navigarea terminalului către acesta.

gatsby new codestack-blog && cd $_

Dacă executați gatsby developîn folderul proiectului, site-ul cu schele ar trebui să arate astfel:

Adăugarea de pluginuri

Gatsby are un set mare și în creștere de pluginuri. Acestea sunt în esență pachete Node.js care interacționează cu API-urile lui Gatsby.

Ele pot fi instalate prin NPM (Node Package Manager) pe terminal și, în general, au trei categorii: funcționale , surse și pluginuri de transformare .

Plugin-uri funcționale

Aceste pluginuri oferă funcționalități suplimentare pe un site Gatsby sau în mediul său de dezvoltare. Pentru aplicația noastră, vom avea nevoie de:

  • gatsby-plugin-react-helmet: permite modificarea headetichetelor. Observați că este deja instalat în proiectul nostru cu schele.
  • gatsby-plugin-catch-links: Interceptă linkurile locale de la markdown și alte pagini care nu reacționează și face un pushState din partea clientului pentru a evita ca browserul să trebuiască să actualizeze pagina.

Instalați pluginurile sau doar al doilea plugin.

npm install gatsby-plugin-react-helmet gatsby-plugin-catch-links

De fiecare dată când adăugăm un nou plugin, trebuie să actualizăm gatsby-config.jsfișierul cu noul plugin, astfel încât Gatsby să îl recunoască și să îl folosească. Folosim căpușe .

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, ],}

Plugin-uri sursă

Aceste pluginuri „sursă” date din locații la distanță sau locale în ceea ce Gatsby numește noduri . Pentru a scrie postările noastre în Markdown pe discul nostru local, avem nevoie de:

  • gatsby-source-filesystem: obține date despre fișiere din sistemul de fișiere al computerului.
npm install gatsby-source-filesystem

Actualizați gatsby-config.jsfișierul:

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, } ],}

Ce se petrece aici? Un optionsobiect poate fi transmis unui plugin pentru mai multe configurări. Trecem sistemul de fișiere path(adică unde vor fi localizate fișierele noastre Markdown), apoi o namepentru fișierele sursă, astfel încât Gatsby să știe despre fișierele noastre sursă și unde să aplice pluginurile transformatorului.

Plugin-uri pentru transformatoare

Aceste pluginuri transformă datele brute din noduriîn formate de date utilizabile. De exemplu, vom avea nevoie de:

  • gatsby-transformer-remark: transformă postările de blog scrise în .mdfișiere de reducere de pe discul local în HTML pentru redare.
npm install gatsby-transformer-remark

Actualizați din gatsby-config.jsnou fișierul.

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, }, `gatsby-transformer-remark`, ],}

2. Crearea componentelor Layout

Gatsby lets you easily create “layout components.” Layout components are sections of your site that you want to share across multiple pages. For the blog we are building, these are the header and the sidebars.

From the root folder, take a look at src/layouts. You’ll discover an index.js file where we define layout components. index.css already came with styles.

After exploring the index.js file, you’ll see that two components have already been created: Header and TemplateWrapper. In TemplateWrapper, we wrap the contents of our site with layout components that we want to be present across multiple pages.

This is made possible by the children() props. It will render all non-layout components of our site where it is placed. Notice that unlike React children props, the children prop passed to layout components is a function and needs to be executed.

First of all, create a new folder and CSS file at src/styles/layout-overide.css. Add to the list of imports in the index.js file. We need to Import it after index.css to override some existing style rules.

import React from 'react'import PropTypes from 'prop-types'import Link from 'gatsby-link'import Helmet from 'react-helmet'
import './index.css'import "../styles/layout-overide.css";

Open layout-overide.css and paste the following styles rules. No need to figure these out.

* { background: #f5f5f5; color: black;}html { height: 100%;}
body { height: 100%; border: 5px solid #ffdb3a;}
h1 { font-size: 1.5rem; line-height: 0.5rem;}
p, div { font-size: 16px;}

Update the header component.

const Header = () => ( 

CodeStack

);

Also, create a Sidebar component.

const Sidebar = (props) => (
{props.title}. {props.description} 
);

We desire the Sidebar and rendered {children()} components to behave in a responsive way like this:

Since there’s no easy way to define media queries in React, I found a library called react-media, a CSS media query component for React. Install it.

npm install --save react-media

It provides a ia> component that listens for matches to a CSS media query and renders stuff based on whether the query matches or not.

Add it to the list of imports in our file.

import Media from 'react-media'

Lets layout everything in ( Header, Sidebar, and children() components) the way we wish in TemplateWrapper. Make the following changes (pardon the shameless plug of my name):

const TemplateWrapper = ({ children }) => ( {matches => matches ? ( {children()} ) : ( {children()} 
 ) } );

Whats happening in that monolithic block of code? React media is using a Ternary operation to determine what to render based on a maxWidth of 848px . When the screen matches the width, only Header and children() components are rendered.

 {matches => matches ? ( ...stuff to render... ) : ( ...stuff to render... ) } 

If you noticed, we also used Flexbox to layout the positions of the children() and Sidebar components.

Run gatsby develop on the terminal and our static blog should look this way now:

3. Creating Blog posts

Now lets get into creating actual blog posts. Gatsby utilizes GraphQL to fetch data from one or many sources such as your local disk, Wordpress API, and so on.

Personally, I like the fact that I can create a static blog and fetch content from a WordPress API. My client has access to the Wordpress Editor where he creates posts, and I avoid dealing with all the hassles of developing a Wordpress site.

In this post, we will load the data from Markdown files we will create on our local disk. The gatsby-source-filesystem plugin we configured earlier expects our content to be in src/pages, so that’s exactly where we’ll put it!

A typical practice for blog posts is to name the folder something like MM-DD-YYYY-title. You can name it whatever you like or just place a markdown file inside the /pages folder.

Let’s create a folder src/pages/12–22–2017-first-post, and place an index.md inside. Write:

---path: "/hello-world"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My First Gatsby Post"---
Oooooh-weeee, my first blog post!
First post Ipsum is a major key to success. Congratulations, you played yourself. Surround yourself with angels. Celebrate success right, the only way, apple. The key is to drink coconut, fresh coconut, trust me. Egg whites, turkey sausage, wheat toast, water. Of course they don’t want us to eat our breakfast, so we are going to enjoy our breakfast. 

The block surrounded in dashes is referred to as frontmatter. The data we specify here, as well as other Markdown files, will be recognized by the gatsby-transformer-remark plugin.

The plugin will convert the frontmatter metadata part of your markdown file to frontmatter and the content part (Yippeeee, my first blog post!) to HTML.

When we begin generating blog pages directly from markdown files in section 4 (next section), path will be used to specify the URL path to render the file. For instance, the markdown file above will be rendered at localhost:8000/hello-world.

Before that, lets create a template that will render any markdown file into its own blog page. Create the file src/templates/blog-post.js (please create thesrc/templates folder).

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}

We’ve set up the Template component to receive a data object which will come from the GraphQL query we are about to write.

Once again, the GraphQL query is needed to fetch data into the component. The result of the query is injected by Gatsby into the Template component as data and markdownRemark.

We will find that the markdownRemark property contains all the details of the Markdown file.

Lets now actually make the query. It should be placed below the Template component:

export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

If you’re not familiar with GraphQL, I’ll try to break down what’s going on here. To learn more about GraphQL, consider this excellent resource.

GraphQL is just Facebook’s idea of a certain type of server. They’ve written a specification on the kind of requests that can be sent to that server and how the server should respond. GraphQL’s API is better than REST, because you describe the exact data the client-side needs so there’s no more under-fetching or over-fetching of data.

This means you have to create your own GraphQL server. Fortunately for us, GatsbyJS comes with its own GraphQL server out of the box.

In the code above, BlogPostByPath is the underlying query which will result in a blog post being returned. It will be returned as data for injection into the Template component.

We pass BlogPostByPath the $path argument to return a blog post related to the path we are currently viewing.

Furthermore, recall markdownRemark transformed our markdown files. It will be treated as a property whose contents will be available via data.markdownRemark.

We could access the HTML via data.markdownRemark.html. Also, the frontmatter content we created with a block of dahes can be accessed via data.markdownRemark.title etc.

The entire blog-template.js should look like this:

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

At this point:

  • We have a bunch of plugins installed to perform some utilities as well as load files off of disk and transform Markdown to HTML.
  • We have a single, lonely Markdown file that will be rendered as a blog post.
  • We have a React template for rendering blog posts in a layout, as well as a wired up GraphQL to query for blog post data and inject the React template with the queried data.

Sweet!

4. Generating new pages from blog post data.

Gatsby provides a Node API, which provides functionality for creating dynamic pages from blog posts. This API is exposed in thegatsby-node.js file in the root directory of your project. This file could export several Node APIs but we are interested in the createPages API.

Utilize the following block of code snippet as provided in the official docs (Note that blogPostTemplate path was set to reflect ours):

const path = require('path');
exports.createPages = ({ boundActionCreators, graphql }) => { const { createPage } = boundActionCreators;
const blogPostTemplate = path.resolve(`src/templates/blog-post.js`);
return graphql(`{ allMarkdownRemark( sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] } limit: 1000 ) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) html id frontmatter { date path title } } } } }`) .then(result => { if (result.errors) { return Promise.reject(result.errors); }
result.data.allMarkdownRemark.edges .forEach(({ node }) => { createPage({ path: node.frontmatter.path, component: blogPostTemplate, context: {} // additional data can be passed via context }); }); });}

Check if it works. I recommend closing your broswer window, stoppingthe gatsby develop server from the terminal using ctrl c. Now run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/hello-world.

Create another file src/pages/24–12–2017-learning-grid/index.md

---path: "/another-one"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My Second Gatsby Post"---
In life there will be road blocks but we will over come it. Special cloth alert. Don’t ever play yourself. The key to more success is to get a massage once a week, very important, major key, cloth talk.
// some css grid code 

Again, close your broswer window, stop gatsby develop server. Run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/another-one. This is shown:

Go on if you wish and create your own pages. ✌

5. Create a list of our site’s markdown files in the landing page.

The default landing page that comes with the scaffolded Gatsby site is located at src/pages/index.js. This is where we would define a template, and make a query to inject it with data for the list of .md files. Do this:

import React from "react";import Link from "gatsby-link";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
import '../styles/blog-listing.css';
export default function Index({ data }) { const { edges: posts } = data.allMarkdownRemark; return ( {posts .filter(post => post.node.frontmatter.title.length > 0) .map(({ node: post }) => { return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

{post.frontmatter.date}

{post.excerpt}

); })} );}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query IndexQuery { allMarkdownRemark(sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] }) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) id frontmatter { title date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path } } } } }`;

I trust you are badass at this point and already familiar with whats going on. Note that we wrote an import above that does not exist. Now create the file /styles/blog-listing.css:

div.blog-post-preview { border-bottom: 2px solid #e6e6e6; padding-top: 1rem; padding-bottom: 1rem; margin-bottom: 1rem;}
h1 > * { font-size: 1.2rem; text-decoration-line: none;}
h2 { font-size: 0.8rem !important; font-weight: 100 !important;}

Restart the server, visit the landing page, and you should see the listing at work:

Conclusion

We have come to the end of this tutorial. Thank you for reading thus far.

This post is just the tip of the iceberg considering the amount of things you could do with Gatsby. Feel free to explore how you could implement:

  • Search functionality
  • The use of tags to categorize blog posts
  • Deploying your Gatsby site

You can grab the final source code here. Feel free to support me (devapparel.co) and look good while at it. Also, Comment or Share this post. Thanks for reading!

P.S I am working on a React book with Ohans Emmanuel that would have you master React by building 30 small projects in 30 days. If you want to stay updated on this, join the mailing list. Thanks!